breast cancer

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  • 10-12% of women will develop breast cancer
  • incidence is highest non-hispanic whites, 2nd in black women[4]
  • incidence of breast cancer increases with age
    • 95% of cases occur in women > 40 years of age
  • most common cause of cancer-related death in women age 35-54; 50% of breast cancer-related death occur in women < 50 years of age[78]
  • 3.5% will die of the disease
  • mortality rates are 15% higher in blacks despite a lower incidence of breast cancer[65]
  • incidence of metastatic breast cancer among women 25-39 years of age increased from 1.53/100,000 in 1976 to 2.90/100,000 in 2009[66]; higher among blacks, non-Hispanic whites, & those with estrogen receptor-positive tumors[66]



Clinical manifestations


Diagnostic procedures



Differential diagnosis



treatment modalities

locally advanced (T4) & inflammatory breast cancer

suspected recurrent breast cancer or metastases

established metastatic breast cancer & relapse

prognosis, fertility, follow-up, prevention

* osteoporosis therapy in estrogen-deprived patient

* bisphosphates lower breast cancer recurrence & mortality in postmenopausal women[102]

* 3-5 years of bisphosphonate treatment (current recommendations)


More general terms

More specific terms

Additional terms


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