echocardiography

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Introduction

Use of high-frequency ultrasound (2-10 MHz) in the investigation of the heart & great vessels. Sound waves are generated from a piezoelectric crystal.

Indications

* in the absence of a murmur,with an ECG indicating left ventricular hypertrophy, echocardiography will not contribute to evaluation of persistent hypertension[9]

Contraindications

Methods

Interpretation

Interferences

Notes

  • hand-held echocardiographic devices may be helpful for triage (training & experience required)[3]

More general terms

More specific terms

References

  1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary 27th ed, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1999.
  2. Mayo Internal Medicine Board Review, 1998-99, Prakash UBS (ed) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1998, pg 57-58
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Medical Knowledge Self Assessment Program (MKSAP) 11,15,16.17,18,19. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia 1998,2009,2012,2015,2018,2022.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Rich JD et al. Inaccuracy of Doppler echocardiographic estimates of pulmonary artery pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension: Implications for clinical practice. Chest 2011 May; 139:988 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20864617
  5. Douglas PS, Garcia MJ, Haines DE et al ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Mar 1;57(9):1126-66. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349406
  6. 6.0 6.1 Douglas PS, Khandheria B, Stainback RF et al ACCF/ASE/ACEP/AHA/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2008 appropriateness criteria for stress echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Mar 18;51(11):1127-47 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18342240
  7. Mulvagh SL, Rakowski H, Vannan MA et al American Society of Echocardiography Consensus Statement on the Clinical Applications of Ultrasonic Contrast Agents in Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2008 Nov;21(11):1179-201; PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18992671
  8. Premkumar P. Utility of Echocardiogram in the Evaluation of Heart Murmurs. Med Clin North Am. 2016 Sep;100(5):991-1001. Review. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542419
  9. 9.0 9.1 Geriatric Review Syllabus, 11th edition (GRS11) Harper GM, Lyons WL, Potter JF (eds) American Geriatrics Society, 2022