COVID-19 vaccine; SARS CoV-2 vaccine

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COVID-19 vaccine overview[55]

comparison of Pfizer, Moderna, Astra-Zeneca & Johnson&Johnson vaccines[70]


* Pfizer vaccine FDA-approved for emergency use authorization Dec 11, 2020[32][33]

* Moderna vaccine (Spikevax) FDA-approved for emergency use authorization Dec 18, 2020[38]


* migraine prevention, including monoclonal Ab targeting CGRP pathway or Botox is not a contraindication[74]

* Moderna & Pfizer mRNA vaccines safe during pregnancy & breastfeeding[133][199]

* safe & effective to administer Covid-19 vaccine & influenza vaccine at same time[262]


Adverse effects

* Also see v-safe in Patient information

Drug interactions

Mechanism of action

Clinical trials

mRNA vaccine

Moderna's mRNA-1273 vaccine (Spikevax)

Pzifer & NioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine

CurVac/GalaxoSmithKline (CVnCoV) mRNA vaccine

About mRNA vaccine

* quiescent spike protein-specific bone marrow plasma cells recovered 8 months after COVID-19 infection suggesting long-lived immunity (see Covid-19 pathology section)

Adenovirus vaccine

Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.COV2.S vaccine

Oxford/AstraZeneca/AZD1222 adenovirus vaccine

Sputnik V adenovirus vaccine

  • Sputnik V a non-replicating adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vectored vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein safe & induces immune response in > 94-100% of humans[2]
    • rAd26 & rAd5 (Sputnik V) adenovirus vaccine shows 92% efficacy in interim results from a phase 3 trial[66]
    • safe & effective[185] ~70 nations, but does not have WHO approval

vaccine to vaccinate the world

inactivated SARS CoV-2 vaccine

protein subunit vaccine

DNA vaccines

Intranasal vaccine

Inhaled vaccine

  • plans to start a phase I/II trial of inhaled vaccine (China)[149]
  • an inhaled version of a COVID-19 vaccine, produced by the Chinese company CanSino Biologics in Tianjin, was approved for use as a booster dose in China.[288]

Oral vaccine

Vaccines in development

* a discussion of COVID-19 vaccines in development[50]

putative vaccines not effective

Breakthrough infections


More general terms

More specific terms

Additional terms


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