A4 amyloid peptide; beta-peptide

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A4 is formed from a larger precursor molecule, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). A4 was originally isolated from amyloid-laden meningeal arterioles & venules in patients with Alzheimer's disease or Down's syndrome.[10]


Formation of A4:

* NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Degradation of A4:*

* alpha-2 macroglobulin may participate in clearance & degradation of A4[12]

Interaction of A4 with other proteins:

high affinity for Cu+2, Fe+3 & Zn+2 in vitro[14]

A4 as antioxidant:

Kinetic parameters:




  • soluble A4 is produced as part of normal APP metabolism
  • virtually all peripheral cells express APP & generate A4[10]


A4 is found in:

Deposition of A4:

Toxicity of A4:



All forms of A4 are found, to some extent, in senile plaques; however, A4/42 is considered the major pathologic form.[10] A4/42 is far more prone to aggregate into fibrils than A4/40. A4/42 is detected earlier in diffuse plaques; A4/40 is detected later. A4/42 is the main component of amyloid deposits in AD. A4/40 is found is small arterioles, venules & capillaries with cerebral cortex also bearing amyloid plaques (see cerebral amyloid angiopathy).

More general terms

More specific terms

Additional terms

Component of


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