West Nile virus (WNV)

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  • West Nile virus




  • variations in CCR5 are associated with susceptibility to West Nile virus

Clinical manifestations


* initial diagnostic tests of choice[11]

Diagnostic procedures



(based on 1999 NY city population)

Comparative biology

More general terms


  1. Journal Watch 21(1):12, 2001
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: West Nile Virus activity--Eastern United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Nov 24;49(46):1044-7. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11105767
  3. Journal Watch 21(14):116, 2001 Nash D et al The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344:1807, 2001 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11407341
  4. Journal Watch 22(14):111, 2002
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Prescriber's Letter 10(7):39 2003
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Journal Watch 23(22):180, 2003 Pealer LN et al Transmission of West Nile virus through blood transfusion in the United States in 2002. N Engl J Med 349:1236, 2003 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14500806
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: Detection of West Nile virus in blood donations- United States, 2003. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14515874 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:916, 2003 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5238a6.htm Erratum to: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:916, 2003 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5239a8.htm
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Prescriber's Letter 12(6): 2005 Keeping Safe From West Nile Virus Detail-Document#: http://prescribersletter.com/(5bhgn1a4ni4cyp2tvybwfh55)/pl/ArticleDD.aspx?li=1&st=1&cs=&s=PRL&pt=3&fpt=25&dd=210601&pb=PRL (subscription needed) http://www.prescribersletter.com
  8. Busch MP, Caglioti S, Robertson EF, McAuley JD, Tobler LH, Kamel H, Linnen JM, Shyamala V, Tomasulo P, Kleinman SH. Screening the blood supply for West Nile virus RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 4;353(5):460-7. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16079369
    Stramer SL, Fang CT, Foster GA, Wagner AG, Brodsky JP, Dodd RY. West Nile virus among blood donors in the United States, 2003 and 2004. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 4;353(5):451-9. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16079368
    Petersen LR, Epstein JS. Problem solved? West Nile virus and transfusion safety. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 4;353(5):516-7. No abstract available. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16079376
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Abroug F et al, A cluster of predictors of severe West Nile virus infection Mayo Clinc 2006; 81:12 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16438473
  10. 10.0 10.1 Tyler KL, Pape J, Goody RJ, Corkill M, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. CSF findings in 250 patients with serologically confirmed West Nile virus meningitis and encephalitis. Neurology. 2006 Feb 14;66(3):361-5. Epub 2005 Dec 28. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16382032
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 Medical Knowledge Self Assessment Program (MKSAP) 14, 16, 17, 19. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia 2006, 2012, 2015, 2021.
    Medical Knowledge Self Assessment Program (MKSAP) 19 Board Basics. An Enhancement to MKSAP19. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia 2022
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Lindsey NP et al Medical risk factors for severe west nile virus disease, United States, 2008-2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jul;87(1):179-84. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22764311
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Press Release: August 1, 2012 West Nile virus disease cases up this year http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2012/p0801_west_nile.html
  14. Dallas mayor declares emergency over West Nile virus Reuters, August 15, 2012 http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/15/us-usa-health-westnile-idUSBRE87E0ZO20120815
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Prescriber's Letter 19(10): 2012 COMMENTARY: The Facts About West Nile Virus Detail-Document#: http://prescribersletter.com/(5bhgn1a4ni4cyp2tvybwfh55)/pl/ArticleDD.aspx?li=1&st=1&cs=&s=PRL&pt=3&fpt=25&dd=281025&pb=PRL (subscription needed) http://www.prescribersletter.com
  16. Sejvar JJ, Bode AV, Marfin AA et al West Nile virus-associated flaccid paralysis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jul;11(7):1021-7 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16022775
  17. Murray KO, Walker C, Gould E. The virology, epidemiology, and clinical impact of West Nile virus: a decade of advancements in research since its introduction into the Western Hemisphere. Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jun;139(6):807-17 PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21342610
  18. 18.0 18.1 Chung WM et al. The 2012 West Nile encephalitis epidemic in Dallas, Texas. JAMA 2013 Jul 17; 310:297. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860988
    Ostroff SM. West Nile virus: Too important to forget. JAMA 2013 Jul 17; 310:267. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860984
  19. Lindsey NP et al West Nile Virus and Other Arboviral Diseases, United States 2013 MMWR. June 20, 2014 / 63(24);521-526 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6324a1.htm
  20. Petersen LR, Brault AC, Nasci RS. West Nile virus: review of the literature. JAMA. 2013 Jul 17;310(3):308-15. Review. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860989 Free PMC Article
  21. Hart J Jr, Tillman G, Kraut MA et al West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease: neurological manifestations and prospective longitudinal outcomes. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 May 9;14:248. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24884681 Free PMC Article
  22. 22.0 22.1 Vasek MJ, Garber C, Dorsey D et al A complement-microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus- induced memory impairment. Nature. 2016 Jun 22;534(7608):538-43. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27337340
  23. 23.0 23.1 McFarling UL Chickens a Sentinel Species for West Nile. Researchers in California using domesticated fowl to track viral spread. MedPage Today. Sept 30, 2017 https://www.medpagetoday.com/InfectiousDisease/GeneralInfectiousDisease/68233
  24. NEJM Knowledge+ Neurology
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Fagre AC, Lyons S, Staples JE, Lindsey N. West Nile virus and other nationally notifiable arboviral diseases - United States, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2023 Aug 25; 72:901. PMID: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/37616182 PMCID: PMC10468221 Free PMC article https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/72/wr/mm7234a1.htm
  26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention West Nile Virus http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm

Patient information

West Nile virus patient information